Increasing indebtedness and severe crises caused the Ottoman Empire to lose monetary sovereignty, culminating with the adoption of a limping gold standard.
International History (students)
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Analysing Libya & Tunisia reveals the important role of political culture in their democratic transitions & the pitfalls of applying ‘universal’ democratic institutions.
While the left advocated the return to democracy, the right has also played an important part in the transition in both Chile and Argentina – albeit to different results.
Al-Banna’s ideas of Islam’s superiority, of his conception of Islam to others, and the monopoly of the absolute truth are the first steps to judge Others as unbelievers.
In a constructed malestream military, women in combat arms are inherently irregular as they take on a twofold irregularity as female fighters and irregular combatants.
Transnational Historical Materialism, post-war reconstruction via the Bretton Woods System and the corporate-liberal paradigm help explain the persistence of US hegemony.
Looking at the example of France and Tunisia, past interference in the political and social life of a country should be considered as a criteria of assessing immigration.
A downward trend in prestige and economic power, along with geopolitical challenges, seems to be forcing the US to realign its foreign policy interests and direction.
Today, energy security is at the top of the EU agenda. The EU’s reliance on Russian gas has caused many nations to reconsider many of their energy-related policies.
As the USSR disintegrated, issues emerged over the autonomous republics of the region. The geopolitical shifts that followed allowed leaders to redesign their authority.
Civil wars are more protracted and difficult to terminate for numerous reasons. Nevertheless, a number of critical factors that fuel these wars can be distinguished.
The comfort women issue has been a boiling point between South Korea and Japan, one that won’t likely simmer anytime soon.