In China, Laos, and Vietnam, the move from planned to market-oriented economies has increased free trade and diminished levels of international conflict and hostility.
The USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan was the result of an intertwined set of concerns and interests within Moscow, rather than socialist internationalism or prestige.
Proponents of liberalism will usually view liberalism as anti-corruption. History suggests something more complex – liberalism’s relationship to corruption is ambiguous.
Whilst there can be no universally satisfactory formulation of ‘Islamic Democracy’, there are numerous Muslim approaches to democracy (some conciliatory, others not).
Neo-liberalism in the self-proclaimed guise of an eutopia allows violence against other utopias, thus validating the very concerns espoused by classical liberal scholars.
Continued democracy in Pakistan is a consequence of the military deciding not to intervene, as they believe they can wield power over the weak civilian government.
Taking Turkey and Egypt as two conflicting examples, the issue of whether the state precedes the nation is illuminated in its multi-varied and complex nature.
American exceptionalism exemplifies the patriotic essence of the American people, but it has also proven problematic for the conduct of sound American foreign policy.
Whilst Nigeria’s history of colonialism can partly explain the difficulties of achieving a functioning federalism, its ‘resource course’ is also a significant hindrance.
The success of Palestinian nationalism in the context of the peace process is complicated by the variations in Orientalism which occur between different forms of Zionism.
Using the case study of the Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda, liberalism’s approach to peacebuilding is inadequate compared to social constructivism’s.
The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was a thoroughly Leninist party. Even at those moments when it appeared to go against Lenin, its adherence to him was near complete.