Early US foreign policy understood and utilised modernity in a manner distinct from Europe, but on the same problematic epistemological grounds.
Early Modern (to c.1800)
The practice of rebuilding ‘failed’ or ‘failing’ states is ethically problematic. It overlooks human security and is too focused on Western institutional standards.
‘World-systems Analysis’ & ‘Uneven and Combined Development’ – when combined & further theorised – provide an illuminating approach to the global system’s functioning.
Hedley Bull’s critique and utilisation of Hobbes’ theory of international anarchy provides a coherent and realistic explanation of the international system.
The Delhi Sultanate’s policies toward Hindus set the stage for the cultural pluralism that defines the modern-day Indian sub-continent.
Having a negative view of human nature, emphasizing the autonomy of politics, and seeing morality as a useful image for the politician, Machiavelli is a forerunner of political realism.
Foucault’s understanding of modernity is focused on the constructive potential of transgression or transfiguration & its role in creating forms of subjugation and experimentation in society.
The fact that colonialists had “more sophisticated weaponry” fails to address the question of why not all European nations were able to compete for the same opportunity to colonize.
Examining the history of development in the UK, the US, Germany and Japan brings the policy recommendations of neoliberalism into question.
The Enlightenment refers to when man started utilizing logic to make discoveries, such as natural laws in the political, scientific, and social realms. The legacy of the Enlightenment is that things have changed for the better, but in recent times it seems as though the world is headed for tougher struggles.
This essay will assess the relevance of the principles developed in On War and The Art of War to the conduct of war by International Security Assistance Forces in Afghanistan, contrasting the resilient lessons of each philosopher in modern combat. The result is solidified in the idea that war is dynamic -a dialogue that is malleable to whatever will is imposed on it-yet there are universal characteristics of war that are pervasive across time and culture.
The second Umayyad Caliphate faced many struggles during its time in the Iberian Peninsula, from internal power conflicts among Muslim factions to the external pressures from the Christian north. ‘Abd al-Rahman III upheld the faith of Islam at a time when all seemed hopeless and was able to restore the Umayyad emirate to its previous stature as the Umayyad Caliphate, and himself to God’s representative on earth.