Early Modern (to c.1800)

Can There be an ‘Islamic Democracy’?

Can There be an ‘Islamic Democracy’?

Whilst there can be no universally satisfactory formulation of ‘Islamic Democracy’, there are numerous Muslim approaches to democracy (some conciliatory, others not).

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Taking Turkey and Egypt as two conflicting examples, the issue of whether the state precedes the nation is illuminated in its multi-varied and complex nature.

Constituting Latin America

Constituting Latin America

Early US foreign policy understood and utilised modernity in a manner distinct from Europe, but on the same problematic epistemological grounds.

Should we Rebuild ‘Failed States’ or ‘Let Them Fail’?

Should we Rebuild ‘Failed States’ or ‘Let Them Fail’?

The practice of rebuilding ‘failed’ or ‘failing’ states is ethically problematic. It overlooks human security and is too focused on Western institutional standards.

Uneven and Combined Development & World Systems Analysis: A Combined Approach

Uneven and Combined Development & World Systems Analysis: A Combined Approach

‘World-systems Analysis’ & ‘Uneven and Combined Development’ – when combined & further theorised – provide an illuminating approach to the global system’s functioning.

Bull’s Critique of Hobbesian International Anarchy

Bull’s Critique of Hobbesian International Anarchy

Hedley Bull’s critique and utilisation of Hobbes’ theory of international anarchy provides a coherent and realistic explanation of the international system.

The Delhi Sultanate’s Treatment of Hindus

The Delhi Sultanate’s Treatment of Hindus

The Delhi Sultanate’s policies toward Hindus set the stage for the cultural pluralism that defines the modern-day Indian sub-continent.

Machiavelli: A Proto-Pluralist?

Machiavelli: A Proto-Pluralist?

Having a negative view of human nature, emphasizing the autonomy of politics, and seeing morality as a useful image for the politician, Machiavelli is a forerunner of political realism.

Foucault’s Interpretation of Modernity

Foucault’s Interpretation of Modernity

Foucault’s understanding of modernity is focused on the constructive potential of transgression or transfiguration & its role in creating forms of subjugation and experimentation in society.

Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization

Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization

The fact that colonialists had “more sophisticated weaponry” fails to address the question of why not all European nations were able to compete for the same opportunity to colonize.

The Role of the State in Development: Re-examining Neo-Liberal Recommendations

The Role of the State in Development: Re-examining Neo-Liberal Recommendations

Examining the history of development in the UK, the US, Germany and Japan brings the policy recommendations of neoliberalism into question.

Are We Doomed by the Legacy of the Enlightenment?

Are We Doomed by the Legacy of the Enlightenment?

The Enlightenment refers to when man started utilizing logic to make discoveries, such as natural laws in the political, scientific, and social realms. The legacy of the Enlightenment is that things have changed for the better, but in recent times it seems as though the world is headed for tougher struggles.