Early Modern (to c.1800)

Bull’s Critique of Hobbesian International Anarchy

Bull’s Critique of Hobbesian International Anarchy

Hedley Bull’s critique and utilisation of Hobbes’ theory of international anarchy provides a coherent and realistic explanation of the international system.

The Delhi Sultanate’s Treatment of Hindus

The Delhi Sultanate’s Treatment of Hindus

The Delhi Sultanate’s policies toward Hindus set the stage for the cultural pluralism that defines the modern-day Indian sub-continent.

Machiavelli: A Proto-Pluralist?

Machiavelli: A Proto-Pluralist?

Having a negative view of human nature, emphasizing the autonomy of politics, and seeing morality as a useful image for the politician, Machiavelli is a forerunner of political realism.

Foucault’s Interpretation of Modernity

Foucault’s Interpretation of Modernity

Foucault’s understanding of modernity is focused on the constructive potential of transgression or transfiguration & its role in creating forms of subjugation and experimentation in society.

Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization

Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization

The fact that colonialists had “more sophisticated weaponry” fails to address the question of why not all European nations were able to compete for the same opportunity to colonize.

The Role of the State in Development: Re-examining Neo-Liberal Recommendations

The Role of the State in Development: Re-examining Neo-Liberal Recommendations

Examining the history of development in the UK, the US, Germany and Japan brings the policy recommendations of neoliberalism into question.

Are We Doomed by the Legacy of the Enlightenment?

Are We Doomed by the Legacy of the Enlightenment?

The Enlightenment refers to when man started utilizing logic to make discoveries, such as natural laws in the political, scientific, and social realms. The legacy of the Enlightenment is that things have changed for the better, but in recent times it seems as though the world is headed for tougher struggles.

The Enduring Wisdom of Sun Tzu and Clausewitz

The Enduring Wisdom of Sun Tzu and Clausewitz

This essay will assess the relevance of the principles developed in On War and The Art of War to the conduct of war by International Security Assistance Forces in Afghanistan, contrasting the resilient lessons of each philosopher in modern combat. The result is solidified in the idea that war is dynamic -a dialogue that is malleable to whatever will is imposed on it-yet there are universal characteristics of war that are pervasive across time and culture.

Changing Cordoba: An Essay on the first Cordoban Caliph

Changing Cordoba: An Essay on the first Cordoban Caliph

The second Umayyad Caliphate faced many struggles during its time in the Iberian Peninsula, from internal power conflicts among Muslim factions to the external pressures from the Christian north. ‘Abd al-Rahman III upheld the faith of Islam at a time when all seemed hopeless and was able to restore the Umayyad emirate to its previous stature as the Umayyad Caliphate, and himself to God’s representative on earth.

Francisco de Vitoria and On the American Indians: A Modern Contribution to International Relations

Francisco de Vitoria and On the American Indians: A Modern Contribution to International Relations

Francisco de Vitoria, a theologian of the 16th century and core writer of the Renaissance, questions our understanding of international affairs and, thus, International Relations as an academic discipline. He leads us to think about the ambiguity of the norms of the contemporary international system, and of international law.

Was the 1920s an ‘era of illusion’?

Was the 1920s an ‘era of illusion’?

If Hollywood is to be believed, the first half of the Twentieth-Century was characterised by traditional moral values and romantic ideals. The 1920s were full of happy maidens marrying their long lost loves who had all miraculously survived World War One. But in his book ‘The Twentieth-Century World, An International History’, William R. Keylor refers to the 1920s and an “era of illusion”. The following essay will explore this claim.

Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Third Reich: 1936-1939

Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Third Reich: 1936-1939

In evaluating Hitler’s power as the maker of German foreign policy from 1936 to 1939 this essay covers some of the most controversial debates on Nazi history. It will show that whilst Hitler determined the direction of foreign policy, it was his exploitation of the opportunities placed before him that led to the Third Reich’s diplomatic successes during the period.