Proponents of liberalism will usually view liberalism as anti-corruption. History suggests something more complex – liberalism’s relationship to corruption is ambiguous.
Early Modern (to c.1800)
Whilst there can be no universally satisfactory formulation of ‘Islamic Democracy’, there are numerous Muslim approaches to democracy (some conciliatory, others not).
Taking Turkey and Egypt as two conflicting examples, the issue of whether the state precedes the nation is illuminated in its multi-varied and complex nature.
Early US foreign policy understood and utilised modernity in a manner distinct from Europe, but on the same problematic epistemological grounds.
The practice of rebuilding ‘failed’ or ‘failing’ states is ethically problematic. It overlooks human security and is too focused on Western institutional standards.
‘World-systems Analysis’ & ‘Uneven and Combined Development’ – when combined & further theorised – provide an illuminating approach to the global system’s functioning.
Hedley Bull’s critique and utilisation of Hobbes’ theory of international anarchy provides a coherent and realistic explanation of the international system.
The Delhi Sultanate’s policies toward Hindus set the stage for the cultural pluralism that defines the modern-day Indian sub-continent.
Having a negative view of human nature, emphasizing the autonomy of politics, and seeing morality as a useful image for the politician, Machiavelli is a forerunner of political realism.
Foucault’s understanding of modernity is focused on the constructive potential of transgression or transfiguration & its role in creating forms of subjugation and experimentation in society.
The fact that colonialists had “more sophisticated weaponry” fails to address the question of why not all European nations were able to compete for the same opportunity to colonize.
Examining the history of development in the UK, the US, Germany and Japan brings the policy recommendations of neoliberalism into question.