Early Modern (to c.1800)
Having a negative view of human nature, emphasizing the autonomy of politics, and seeing morality as a useful image for the politician, Machiavelli is a forerunner of political realism.
Foucault’s understanding of modernity is focused on the constructive potential of transgression or transfiguration & its role in creating forms of subjugation and experimentation in society.
The fact that colonialists had “more sophisticated weaponry” fails to address the question of why not all European nations were able to compete for the same opportunity to colonize.
Examining the history of development in the UK, the US, Germany and Japan brings the policy recommendations of neoliberalism into question.
The Enlightenment refers to when man started utilizing logic to make discoveries, such as natural laws in the political, scientific, and social realms. The legacy of the Enlightenment is that things have changed for the better, but in recent times it seems as though the world is headed for tougher struggles.
This essay will assess the relevance of the principles developed in On War and The Art of War to the conduct of war by International Security Assistance Forces in Afghanistan, contrasting the resilient lessons of each philosopher in modern combat. The result is solidified in the idea that war is dynamic -a dialogue that is malleable to whatever will is imposed on it-yet there are universal characteristics of war that are pervasive across time and culture.
The second Umayyad Caliphate faced many struggles during its time in the Iberian Peninsula, from internal power conflicts among Muslim factions to the external pressures from the Christian north. ‘Abd al-Rahman III upheld the faith of Islam at a time when all seemed hopeless and was able to restore the Umayyad emirate to its previous stature as the Umayyad Caliphate, and himself to God’s representative on earth.
Francisco de Vitoria, a theologian of the 16th century and core writer of the Renaissance, questions our understanding of international affairs and, thus, International Relations as an academic discipline. He leads us to think about the ambiguity of the norms of the contemporary international system, and of international law.