International Law

The State of Deception & The Time Bomb: Evaluating Torture as Counter-Terrorism

The State of Deception & The Time Bomb: Evaluating Torture as Counter-Terrorism

In a ‘state of exception’, where it is vital to maintain national security, liberal governments do not suspend the rule of law but rather legally circumvent it.

‘R2P’ as an Emerging Norm

‘R2P’ as an Emerging Norm

R2P’s power lies in its potential, as an emerging norm, to shift state attitudes to mass atrocity crimes to a legal commitment to protect at risk people around the world.

A Constructivist Approach to China’s Aircraft Carrier Ambitions

A Constructivist Approach to China’s Aircraft Carrier Ambitions

The symbolic power of the aircraft carrier was key to China’s public demand to develop aircraft capabilities and reflective of desires to achieve world power prestige.

Torture and the Failure of the International System

Torture and the Failure of the International System

The prevalence of torture represents a failure of the state-led, sovereignty-based international order. A move beyond torture requires a move beyond sovereignty.

Accounting for the Failure of Russia to Consolidate Democracy

Accounting for the Failure of Russia to Consolidate Democracy

The lack of democratic consensus amongst the political elite is primarily responsible for the democratic impasse in Russia under the leadership of Putin.

Balancing the Rights of Sovereign States With Those of Secessionist Movements

Balancing the Rights of Sovereign States With Those of Secessionist Movements

For secession, the balance of rights, despite a shift towards a more ‘liberal’ international law in recent years, should remain in the favour of (just) sovereign states.

Legitimacy and the US-led Invasion of Iraq

Legitimacy and the US-led Invasion of Iraq

The existence of legitimate norms & principles within international society did, in fact, exert influence over the US’ behaviour in its 2003 invasion of Iraq.

An Examination of Russia’s Foreign Policy Through The Clash of Civilizations

An Examination of Russia’s Foreign Policy Through The Clash of Civilizations

Russia’s actions of late are difficult to understand through traditional paradigms, but Huntington’s Clash of Civilization paradigm offers a holistic view of the crisis.

Does Free Trade Undermine International Rules Protecting the Environment?

Does Free Trade Undermine International Rules Protecting the Environment?

The WTO undermines international environmental rules. Yet, the WTO’s decisions comply with the mandates for which it operates which do not cover environmental protection.

A Critical Assessment of the Application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya

A Critical Assessment of the Application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya

The application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya was a success in that it mobilised the UNSC to act decisively with remarkable speed and fully in accordance with R2P

‘Material Breach': A Valid Justification for Military Intervention in Iraq?

‘Material Breach': A Valid Justification for Military Intervention in Iraq?

The concept of ‘material breach’ was used as a political tool to justify military action in Iraq in 2003 by the U.S. and U.K., as opposed to a legal justification.