Middle East

Legitimacy and the US-led Invasion of Iraq

Legitimacy and the US-led Invasion of Iraq

The existence of legitimate norms & principles within international society did, in fact, exert influence over the US’ behaviour in its 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Why Did the Soviet Union Invade Afghanistan in 1979?

Why Did the Soviet Union Invade Afghanistan in 1979?

The USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan was the result of an intertwined set of concerns and interests within Moscow, rather than socialist internationalism or prestige.

Neoliberal Globalisation and the “Arab Spring”; One Facet of a Global Movement?

Neoliberal Globalisation and the “Arab Spring”; One Facet of a Global Movement?

The movements of 2011 were motivated by multiple grievances, but the common underlying factors were socioeconomic grievances and a rejection of the neoliberal program.

Food Insecurity and Unrest in the Arab Spring

Food Insecurity and Unrest in the Arab Spring

Rapidly rising international food prices caused the urban middle class to experience acute food insecurity, which is linked to the unrest resulting in the Arab Spring.

Are Economic Sanctions a Viable Strategy for Coercing Another State?

Are Economic Sanctions a Viable Strategy for Coercing Another State?

Economic sanctions fail in most of their major ambitions, and their ethical justifications are based on a distorted form of consequentialist ethics.

The Iranian Nuclear programme: Impact on Regional Stability and Security

The Iranian Nuclear programme: Impact on Regional Stability and Security

Deterrence theory is not compelling when applied to Iran and the Middle East: an Iranian nuclear weapon would destabilize the region and lead to proliferation and war.

Why the Military Did Not Take Over: Understanding Pakistan’s Democratic Path

Why the Military Did Not Take Over: Understanding Pakistan’s Democratic Path

Continued democracy in Pakistan is a consequence of the military deciding not to intervene, as they believe they can wield power over the weak civilian government.

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Taking Turkey and Egypt as two conflicting examples, the issue of whether the state precedes the nation is illuminated in its multi-varied and complex nature.

Non-Western Perspectives on Constitutional Supremacy

Non-Western Perspectives on Constitutional Supremacy

Greater flexibility, vulnerability, and uncertainty differentiate constitutional supremacy in non-Western countries such as Turkey and India from Western nations.

The Arab Uprisings, Globalisation and Postmodernity

The Arab Uprisings, Globalisation and Postmodernity

The profane demands of Arab postmodernity did not reject the general idea of modernisation; they safeguarded a universal sense of amelioration and emancipation.

The Incompatibility of COIN Warfare and Nation-Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

The Incompatibility of COIN Warfare and Nation-Building in Iraq and Afghanistan

The disjuncture between kinetic elements of American COIN doctrine and the nation-building mission inherent to ‘new’ conflicts lies at the root of ongoing difficulties.

Coalition ‘Victory’ in Iraq as a Result of the ‘Surge’ and ‘Anbar Awakening’

Coalition ‘Victory’ in Iraq as a Result of the ‘Surge’ and ‘Anbar Awakening’

The synergistic interaction between the ‘Anbar Awakening’ of 2006 and the surge of 2007 paved the way for U.S. withdrawal at the expense of a long term, stable, Iraq.