Both ideological and internal and external geopolitical forces have led to the emergence, decline and subsequent failure of Pan-Arab Nationalism in the Middle East.
States & Global Governance
With the Syrian War raging on, with over 200,000 killed and millions displaced over the span of four years, why did the US not conduct air-strikes to overthrow Assad?
George W. Bush’s Presidency is often asserted as a Neo-Conservative one. If this was the case, however, fundamentally different policy objectives would have been pursued.
Violence is not an intrinsic part of an objective reality, but rather exists because it is legitimated and normalized through the valorization of a hegemonic masculinity
Georgia and Ukraine wars of 2008 and 2014 bear a resemblance because each was triggered primarily by Russian strategic concerns—often relating to the Black Sea.
Since the 1980s a new respect for constitution, government, democracy and the rule of law have finally found its place within Argentinian politics.
Chileans are becoming more politically active and are focusing their anger at the unfair university system and the problems that Pinochet’s free market economic policies have caused.
Coups were often effective in the short term, but their weakness lies in their long term effects – most notably via deep bitterness from states involved and blowback
Carter’s fate was very much symbolic of the constraints that the Cold War had on US policymakers at a time when morals, ideals and optimism had little stock.
It can be concluded that the European society of states after the Congress of Vienna was one of increasingly intermeshing inter-state relationships and commitments.
The democratisation strategy of the EU in Morocco and Azerbaijan favours the stability of existing power structures and has therefore been largely ineffective.
Cuba, in the midst of the recent detente between Washington and Havana, will likely continue its cautious reforms towards a mixed public-private economic system.