If the international community maintains a positive, critical role and domestic pushes for human rights are legitimised by international law, human rights have the potential to be universal.
Despite the US’ claims of self-defence and terrorist eradication, it can be argued that the NATO invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 was not legal under international law.
Japan and China reacted differently to pressure from the West in the 19th century: Japan opened trade with the West and modernized successfully, neither of which China did.
Chinese – US diplomacy in 1972 would have been impossible without Mao’s permission. The historical influences of the talks illuminate the importance of Mao on China’s decisions.
Rather than as a consistent and self-standing construction, ethical foreign policy is dependent upon the underlying domestic and political context of the State in question.
The West’s increasingly aggressive nature of exporting liberalism is actually working to delegitimize its own hegemony, creating cracks in the self-perpetuating liberal world order.
Evolving from radio and print into TV during the Cold War years, the media’s role in the production, contribution, and maintenance of Cold War antagonism cannot be understated.
Modern Russia is a status quo power, only acting in response to NATO and US-backed actions without intent to enlarge its territorial or military influence beyond its own region.