The transformation of the Syrian Civil War from a bipolar to a tripolar conflict came from incompatible visions of Syria’s future within the Syrian Resistance Coalition.
Lacking internal coherence, Mearsheimer’s theory ultimately fails to provide a logically consistent basis for the view that China’s rise will be unpeaceful.
An agreed definition of terrorism is needed. This definition should consider state-actors, the wider targets, and desire for behavior-motivation that underlies its motives.
The jus ad bellum principles show that the intervention in Libya was justified, and offers an example of how to respond to the idea of civilian protection.
Even though the 1948 Arab-Israeli War resulted in Israel’s victory, it had significant consequences on the regional politics of the region, which are still visible today.
A myth of torture is represented on 24, outlining the practice as physically effective and justified to fight terrorism. This has impacted American attitudes and beliefs over time.
Adjustments need to be made to Japan’s strategic policies toward China to ensure that domestic legitimacy concerns do not exploit existing pressures that would destabilise the Sino-Japanese relationship.
The BRICS today are undeniably concerned with creating multipolarity in a globalised world, but the extent to which historical conditions determine their foreign policies remains contested.
If the international community maintains a positive role and domestic pushes for human rights are legitimised by international law, they could yet become universal.
Despite the US’ claims of self-defence and terrorist eradication, it can be argued that the NATO invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 was not legal under international law.
Japan and China reacted differently to pressure from the West in the 19th century: Japan opened trade with the West and modernized successfully, neither of which China did.
Chinese – US diplomacy in 1972 would have been impossible without Mao’s permission. The historical influences of the talks illuminate the importance of Mao on China’s decisions.