Encouraging apolitical activities focused around the common concerns of communities holds great potential to foster reconciliation in post-atrocity contexts.
Often, though not always, the intervening state strengthens ethnic identities, thereby exacerbating ethnic divisions, in its quest to further its own interests.
Current Chinese Internet censorship efforts resemble a petitioning (complaint) system Chinese leaders have employed in various forms since the Zhou dynasty.
By sponsoring the mujahidin, the US and Pakistan empowered an ideology and movement that encouraged tensions within the Muslim political communities of the Persian Gulf.
Schooling, which is the institutionalization of learning, is structurally and instrinsically violent, but learning itself need not be a violent or oppressive process.
The postcolonial concept of the ‘Other’ puts power in binary terms & disempowers woman – women & policymakers should abandon the concept but retain cultural sensitivity.
The criollo elites in New Grenada crafted a complicated and sometimes contradictory ideological endeavor to organize the peoples and territories they aspired to rule.
In contrast to Neorealist framings, there are clear indications that intersubjective meanings and social identities shape the international system in multiple ways.
The causes and effects of performative violence are linked, and include intimidation, social and material control, social cohesion and communication, and structural violence.
Cultural relativism and universalism have yet to overcome cultural traditions which result in human harm. By balancing the two, there is potential for progress.
To explain why states are compelled to justify their behaviour according to norms, the best approach is to interpret the issue as a process that considers all theories.
Constructivism plays a vital role in EU governance, while rational choice is an ineffective research tool that can be absorbed by the broader diagnostic approach offered by constructivism.