In China, Laos, and Vietnam, the move from planned to market-oriented economies has increased free trade and diminished levels of international conflict and hostility.
The existence of legitimate norms & principles within international society did, in fact, exert influence over the US’ behaviour in its 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The emergence of violent crime after war should be considered as the product of a multiplicity of sources associated with conflict and with larger structural dynamics.
The USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan was the result of an intertwined set of concerns and interests within Moscow, rather than socialist internationalism or prestige.
Russia’s actions of late are difficult to understand through traditional paradigms, but Huntington’s Clash of Civilization paradigm offers a holistic view of the crisis.
Rapidly rising international food prices caused the urban middle class to experience acute food insecurity, which is linked to the unrest resulting in the Arab Spring.
Deterrence theory is not compelling when applied to Iran and the Middle East: an Iranian nuclear weapon would destabilize the region and lead to proliferation and war.
Security is best seen as an ‘essentially contested concept’ because a universalised, fixed, and static definition is inconsistent with how its meaning changes in context.
Continued democracy in Pakistan is a consequence of the military deciding not to intervene, as they believe they can wield power over the weak civilian government.
The disjuncture between kinetic elements of American COIN doctrine and the nation-building mission inherent to ‘new’ conflicts lies at the root of ongoing difficulties.
Whilst Nigeria’s history of colonialism can partly explain the difficulties of achieving a functioning federalism, its ‘resource course’ is also a significant hindrance.
The synergistic interaction between the ‘Anbar Awakening’ of 2006 and the surge of 2007 paved the way for U.S. withdrawal at the expense of a long term, stable, Iraq.