The intentions of biological weapons are to cause damage to the social and economic order of society. Infectious disease also causes damage to this order and thus constitutes a security threat.
Despite the US’ claims of self-defence and terrorist eradication, it can be argued that the NATO invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 was not legal under international law.
While not always clearly expressed, human nature is the immediate basis of all human endeavours up to and including war and expands to the pursuit of those resources most vital to survival.
Though commonly conceptualised as opposing poles within the international relations discourse, there is no reason why constructivism and realism could not reach converging deductions.
A utilitarian calculus shows that if Iraq‘s nuclear programme had even a five per cent chance of starting a regional nuclear war, the actual harm imposed upon Iraq by sanctions can be justified.
Despite a few alleviative and still fewer success cases, globalization tends to accelerate ethnic conflicts on economic and cultural fronts, on top of pre-existent ancient hatreds.
The nature of sovereignty has changed from one which vests states with the right to non-intervention, to one which grants them certain responsibilities towards its own population.
NATO’s political objective superseded humanitarian considerations. A liberal argument for the primacy of human rights cannot account for NATO’s conduct in Libya.