Essays

One of the best ways of developing your essay writing ability is to see how other students respond to similar questions. Reading other students’ essays can provide interesting insights and broaden your understanding of what is possible when answering a question.

The Legality of America’s Program of Targeted Killings by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The Legality of America’s Program of Targeted Killings by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The administrations of President Bush and President Obama have not provided many more details on how they assess just what these targeting practices are or how they operate. While they offer assurances that their procedures meet the necessary requirements of the laws of war in terms of distinction and proportionality, they have not offered any evidence of the actual overview process.

The challenges confronting western intelligence services after 9/11

The challenges confronting western intelligence services after 9/11

After the attacks there was an automatic shift in intelligence interest from state to non-state actors. Agencies changed from gatherers into hunters, searching for any information revealing possible threat of attack. Compared to standard state targets, Al- Qaeda and other global terrorist groups were more difficult to find, target and spy on due to their mobility.

The politics of bipolarity and IPE in contemporary times

The politics of bipolarity and IPE in contemporary times

Bipolarity is based on constant tension, which leads to competition, and ultimately, war. International political economy is regarded as the principal focus of the forces of globalization and the main way in which it is transmitted throughout the world. With the end of bipolarity and the disappearance of barriers between people, is the emergence of a unipolar world a world order based on globalisation?

Offense-Defense Theory and the absence of war on the Korean peninsula

Offense-Defense Theory and the absence of war on the Korean peninsula

This essay argues that the absence of a major war between North (DPRK) and South Korea (ROK) does not disprove the offense-defense theory (ODT) because the theory is capable of explaining the prevalence of peace under conditions when the defense has the advantage.

What are the main developments contained within the Treaty of Lisbon?

What are the main developments contained within the Treaty of Lisbon?

The year 2005 has meant a rejection of a viable constitutional project for the European Union. After a reconsideration and political stylization of the Constitutional Treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon was put together and signed by all of the 27 member states on the 13th of December 2007. What developments did it contain?

Does the European Union Need an Army?

Does the European Union Need an Army?

There is much discussion between those who believe the EU should remain a wholly civilian (soft) power and those who argue that it should develop a military (hard) dimension. There is also a lively debate between those who seek to develop an autonomous military identity (Europeanists) and those who see Europe’s military future in NATO (Atlanticists). But does the EU need an army?

How radically did Hobbes depart from the natural law tradition?

How radically did Hobbes depart from the natural law tradition?

There has been much debate on how to interpret Hobbes; especially whether he is to be understood as a materialist utilitarian, deducing his theory from an egoistic psychology and explaining obligation through rational calculation of self-interest, or whether, he is in fact, more of a Kantian deontologist adhering to the tradition of natural law. This essay argues against the latter position.

Does the European Union have a strategic culture?

Does the European Union have a strategic culture?

This essay will posit that the EU does have a strategic culture, but one still in infancy, beset by weaknesses and potentially insurmountable obstacles. To demonstrate this, we shall explore key diplomatic efforts to enhance European strategic integration, responses to world events and operational deployments, how these have progressively shaped a common strategic culture, and how numerous issues undermine it.

Is it a good idea for western states to intervene in ‘humanitarian’ crises?

Is it a good idea for western states to intervene in ‘humanitarian’ crises?

During the 1990s the political elites of liberal democratic states began to lean towards the norm which Kofi Annan, in his speech to the UN General Assembly in September, 1999, labeled as a norm to forcibly protect civilians who are at risk from genocide and mass killing. This undeniably raises the question: is it a good idea to intervene in humanitarian crises?

Al-Qaeda and the success of US intelligence

Al-Qaeda and the success of US intelligence

The year 1989 will remain in a global history as direct beginning of Soviet Union’s collapse which was finalized in the 1991. This year will also stay in world remembrance as a founding date of probably best known terrorist organization – Al-Qaeda. How well has US intelligence performed against this threat?

Is the United Nations Relevant?

Is the United Nations Relevant?

This paper argues that despite its flaws in the political domain and the weaknesses of the Security Council, the UN’s role in sustaining the economic and social development and addressing global issues such as hunger has been exceptionally strong. It is inadequate to focus on the UN’s political realm only and dismiss the other substantive areas of its work such as sustainable development.

Please Consider Donating

Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Many thanks!

Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below.