Author profile: Giulia Valentini

China and Japan’s Responses to the West in the 19th Century

Giulia Valentini • Nov 4 2013 • Essays

Japan and China reacted differently to pressure from the West in the 19th century: Japan opened trade with the West and modernized successfully, neither of which China did.

Pros and Cons of the UK-US Special Relationship

Giulia Valentini • Oct 4 2013 • Essays

Since World War II, the United Kingdom and the United States have enjoyed an extremely close “special relationship” in the areas of military intervention, defense, and the economy.

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