Essays

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Why the Military Did Not Take Over: Understanding Pakistan’s Democratic Path

Why the Military Did Not Take Over: Understanding Pakistan’s Democratic Path

Continued democracy in Pakistan is a consequence of the military deciding not to intervene, as they believe they can wield power over the weak civilian government.

A Critical Assessment of the Application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya

A Critical Assessment of the Application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya

The application of Responsibility to Protect in Libya was a success in that it mobilised the UNSC to act decisively with remarkable speed and fully in accordance with R2P

‘Material Breach’: A Valid Justification for Military Intervention in Iraq?

‘Material Breach’: A Valid Justification for Military Intervention in Iraq?

The concept of ‘material breach’ was used as a political tool to justify military action in Iraq in 2003 by the U.S. and U.K., as opposed to a legal justification.

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Does the State Always Precede the Nation in the Middle East & North Africa?

Taking Turkey and Egypt as two conflicting examples, the issue of whether the state precedes the nation is illuminated in its multi-varied and complex nature.

Does Realism Best Explain Intelligence Cooperation Between States?

Does Realism Best Explain Intelligence Cooperation Between States?

Scholars should combine Realism with Liberal-Institutionalist and Constructivist theories in order to best explain the reasons why states cooperate over intelligence.

Machiavelli on the Use of Immoral Means in Politics

Machiavelli on the Use of Immoral Means in Politics

If a political prince’s primary purpose is to maintain his leadership, he must develop the capability of appropriately using immoral methods when necessary.
 

Non-Western Perspectives on Constitutional Supremacy

Non-Western Perspectives on Constitutional Supremacy

Greater flexibility, vulnerability, and uncertainty differentiate constitutional supremacy in non-Western countries such as Turkey and India from Western nations.

‘Alternative Development’ as a Policy to Combat Illegal Drug Production

‘Alternative Development’ as a Policy to Combat Illegal Drug Production

Alternative development programmes, and supply-side policies in general, have been ineffective in combating illegal drug production at the national and regional level.

The Arab Uprisings, Globalisation and Postmodernity

The Arab Uprisings, Globalisation and Postmodernity

The profane demands of Arab postmodernity did not reject the general idea of modernisation; they safeguarded a universal sense of amelioration and emancipation.

State Failure Characterised by the Westphalian Model of Sovereignty

State Failure Characterised by the Westphalian Model of Sovereignty

The nature of sovereignty exposes the definition of state failure and, as such, the challenge to the Westphalian model that failed states represent.

American Exceptionalism: Exemplifying Patriotism and Justifying Imperialism

American Exceptionalism: Exemplifying Patriotism and Justifying Imperialism

American exceptionalism exemplifies the patriotic essence of the American people, but it has also proven problematic for the conduct of sound American foreign policy.

International Security and “Failed States”: A Cause for Concern?

International Security and “Failed States”: A Cause for Concern?

Failed states signal that the Westphalian model lacks empirical support and is a simple political construction that deserves greater theoretical scrutiny.